- Original submission
- Open Access
Quality assessment for mobile media-enriched services: impact of video lengths
© Fajardo et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
- Received: 27 December 2011
- Accepted: 1 February 2012
- Published: 1 February 2012
The inclusion of multimedia content in different web-based services has increased significantly. Through an extensive subjective testing campaign, we analyse the quality of experience concerning video transmissions associated to these types of services when accessed from mobile devices and mobile Internet connections. Contrary to traditional normalised quality assessment studies, we point out the service context as a key aspect in quality assessments. Specifically, we analyse the impact of the duration of the test material on quality assessments. We find out that tolerance to visual degradations is higher in the specific context of use compared to when using standardised methodologies for quality assessment, which has a significant impact in terms of commercial service acceptability.
- Video Sequence
- Visual Quality
- Mean Opinion Score
- Video Transmission
- Quality Assessment Study
The explosion of multimedia content on the Internet has attracted a number of commercial players. New media-enriched services are constantly being deployed on the web, such as mass media, online advertising in web pages, user interaction in social networks, user-generated content sharing portals, etc. At the same time, the segment of users who access these types of services through mobile connections is growing significantly.
The quality of experience (QoE) as expressed by end users for these services is of paramount importance for service and network engineers, since it eventually influences customers' willingness to use the service. Although quality in video transmissions has been thoroughly studied in recent years, it has been commonly associated to visual quality [1, 2] instead of addressing the problem from a pure service standpoint. Ibarrola proposes in  a general model for the management of quality of service (QoS) based on ITU-T E.802, where the concept of service is linked to the service context since it modifies both users' expectations and perceptions. Less work has been devoted to the study of multimedia services in their context of use. In  authors overview several studies concerning the key influence of the context in service quality evaluations: the upper and lower thresholds of satisfaction seem to be attenuated in the specific context of use. In , users are requested to watch full length movies with different types of degradations along the video track. Results show that the perceived visual quality is considerably different when compared to the traditional short duration tests. Additionally, users show different tolerance levels when movies are played at TV or PC screens, which points out that users' expectations play a major role in service evaluations.
This paper illustrates a series of experiments aimed at analyzing the QoE for different media-enriched web-based services in a mobile context. An extensive subjective testing campaign was carried out to gauge the satisfaction as expressed by end users. 20 subjects participated in the tests (13 male, 7 female) with ages ranging from 21 to 44 years old (average at 28). Context of use was explored using (1) video property and length (2) mobile access and (3) the methodology for assessing user experience. Users were asked to evaluate the impact of similar visual impairments in two contexts: (1) using common test video sequences and including typical wireless degradations, and (2) including similar loss conditions into video sequences extracted from considered online services.
Video lengths were inferred from the analysis of different online sources, namely BBC news mobile, YouTube Mobile and Facebook. The duration of clips ranged from 20 s to 600 s, with average values between 94 s and 197 s. In  authors found average duration of videos hosted in Daum (popular service for user-generated content in Korea) from 30 s for advertisements to 203 s for music videos. Concerning viewing conditions, all sequences were displayed in a mobile handset (screen size of 2.8 inches, resolution of 320*240 pixels) instead of a normalised LCD display, and users were asked to hold the handset on their hands with a free viewing distance (commonly 6-8 times the height of the display). For quality assessments, we decided not to use the recommended continuous assessment method for long video sequences, since quality evaluation tasks may distort the results from a service perspective. Instead, absolute category rating (ACR) was used at the end of each sequence. In addition to quantitative assessments, qualitative evaluations were considered allowing users to add comments and to stop the play out if quality was perceived as unacceptable.
Short video sequences
Long video sequences
We show the QoE results concerning video transmissions associated to a series of media-enriched web services in a mobile context of use. We revisit the relevance of traditional visual quality assessment studies from a service deployment standpoint. From an extensive subjective testing campaign we find out that users' tolerance to visual degradations is quite higher when video sequences of 100-120 s are considered, as typical values for the considered services. This effect should be taken into account when deploying mobile media services or proposing real-time adaptation actions. As well, the variability of users' assessments indicates that user segmentation could be a good input for defining these kinds of management strategies.
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